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This is what happened in many other places in Europe, but that is not what happened here. The Western Mail's 'London Letter' pointed this out on 28 August , when it stated that 'both the Government and the Jewish leaders think that the Jewish press is betraying an unnecssary amount of alarm, and that it would have been better advised to have treated the attacks upon Jews and their property in Wales as part of a general attack upon persons and property'.

Pogroms in Russian History

Perhaps the most cogent letter on this subject came from Bertam Jacobs, a Welsh-born London barrister who wrote to the South Wales Argus. Jacobs pointed out the absurdity of likening the South Wales riots to the Russian pogroms, noting the crucial differences between the two, especially the fact that no Jew was physically assautled, no private house belonging to a Jew was set up, no anti-Semitic cries or slogans were heard, and, especially, no synagogue was attacked.

The misnamed "Pinsk pogrom", a plain, powerful, alliterative phrase, entered history in April Its importance lay not only in its timing, during the tensest moments of the Paris Peace Conference and the most crucial deliberations over Poland's political future: The reports of Pinsk once more demonstrated the swift transmission of local violence to world notice and the disfiguring process of rumor and prejudice on every level.

Unlike attacks on the Jews of Eastern Europe, the authorities did not initiate the Hebron riots, and the police did not simply stand aside Metropolitan Books. ISBN The term is usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of — Cambridge University Press. The term was especially associated with Eastern Europe and the Russian Empire, the scene of the most serious outbreaks of anti-Jewish violence before the Holocaust.

Yet when applied indiscriminately to events in Eastern Europe, the term can be misleading, the more so when it implies that "pogroms" were regular events in the region and that they always shared common features. In fact, outbreaks of mass violence against Jews were extraordinary events, not a regular feature of East European life. Rethinking the Pogrom in East European History. Meir, and Israel Bartal "No doubt many will contend that history suggests the need for a serious attempt to clarify what a pogrom is or is not.

In the event, however, no such clarification is possible, for "pogrom" is not a pre-existing natural category but an abstraction created by human beings in order to divide complex and infinitely varies social phenomena into manageable units of analysis.

As a result, in the absence of universal agreement concerning the specific behaviours to which the word refers or of some supreme authority to whom the power of definition has been delegated, there can be no logically or empirically compelling grounds for declaring that some particular episode does or does not merit the label. The first syllable, po-, is a prefix indicating "means" or "target". The word therefore seems to imply a sudden burst of energy thunderbolt directed at a specific target.

A pogrom is generally thought of as a cross between a popular riot and a military atrocity, where an unarmed civilian, often urban, population is attacked by either an army unit or peasants from surrounding villages, or a combination of the two. Early instances of this phenomenon in the Russian Empire were described using various terms here in Russian : demonstratsii, gonenie, draky, besporiadki demonstrations, persecution, fights, riots. Pogrom, however, has been the most effective in entering European languages, perhaps through Yiddish usage.

Jews have not been the only group to suffer under this phenomenon, but historically Jews have been frequent victims of such violence. In mainstream usage, the word has come to imply an act of antisemitism. Its international currency dates back to the anti-Semitic excesses in Tsarist Russia during the years —, but the phenomenon existed in the same form at a much earlier date and was by no means confined to Russia. As John D. Klier points out in his seminal article "The pogrom paradigm in Russian history", the anti-Semitic pogroms in Russia were described by contemporaries as demonstrations, persecution, or struggle, and the government made use of the term besporiadok unrest, riot to emphasize the breach of public order.

Then, during the twentieth century, the term began to develop along two separate lines. In the Soviet Union, the word lost its anti-Semitic connotation and came to be used for reactionary forms of political unrest and, from , for outbreaks of interethnic violence; while in the West, the anti-Semitic overtones were retained and government orchestration or acquiescence was emphasized. The Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 5 September Page Michlic University of Nebraska Press. In three days 72 Jews were murdered and others injured. The chief perpetrators of these murders were soldiers and officers of the so-called Blue Army, set up in France in by General Jozef Haller — and lawless civilians".

Walter de Gruyter. Jewries at the Frontier: Accommodation, Identity, Conflict. University of Illinois Press. Rozenblit Oxford University Press. Polish soldiers led an attack on the Jewish quarter of the city on November 21—23, that claimed 73 Jewish lives". Gitelman University of Pittsburgh Press. New York Tribune. Retrieved BBC News , 19 August Nazi authorities turned a blind eye as SA stormtroopers and civilians destroyed storefronts with hammers, leaving the streets covered in pieces of smashed windows.

Ninety-one Jews were killed, and 30, Jewish men were taken to concentration camps. The World Must Know.


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United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. The Holocaust , Greenwood Publishing Group, p. Zimmerman, Rutgers University Press — Publisher; pp. Biskupski, Piotr Stefan Wandycz, page Conaway, Polity, Vol. There is no other definition than the term 'pogrom' to describe what I have seen.

Pereswetoff-Morath writes in "A Grin without a Cat" that "I feel that Birnbaum's use of the term "anti-Semitism" as well as, for example, his use of "pogrom" in references to medieval Rus are not warranted by the evidence he presents. He is, of course, aware that it may be controversial. Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. On Prejudice: A Global Perspective. Anchor Books. Retrieved 2 September Andric describes the "Sarajevo frenzy of hate" that erupted among Muslims, Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers following the assassination on June 28, , of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo The so-called pogrom in Pinsk in March turned out to be work of a panicky lieutenant, whose order to executre thirty-five suspected Bolshevik infiltrators was described by a US investigator as 'fully justified by the circumstances'; the pogroms in Wilno in April and again in October were occasioned by the Red Army's hasty retreats, and by military reprisals against suspected collaborators.

Baum, Shimon Samuels. Antisemitism Explained. University Press of America. The Post and Courier. April 10, Retrieved 25 October May 24, Categories :. Add Social Profiles Facebook, Twitter, etc. Jonathan Dekel-Chen. Unfollow Follow Unblock.

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Other Affiliations:. His work has been widely His work has been widely published at prestigious university presses and in scholarly journals. His current work focuses on Jewish transnational philanthropy and migration. In he co-founded the Bikurim Youth Village for the Performing Arts in the Eshkol region, which provides world-class artistic training for under-served high school students from throughout Israel.


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  7. Definitions of pogrom.

Although overshadowed in historical memory by the Holocaust, the anti-Jewish pogroms of the late 19th and early 20th centuries were at the time unrivaled episodes of ethnic violence. Incorporating newly available primary sources, this Incorporating newly available primary sources, this collection of groundbreaking essays by researchers from Europe, the United States, and Israel investigates the phenomenon of anti-Jewish violence, the local and transnational responses to pogroms, and instances where violence was averted. View on iupress.

Save to Library. In response to a recent article by Peter Beinart in the "Forward", Jonathan Dekel-Chen offers first-hand insights on about the realities along the Gaza border and the possible roles American-Jewish leadership could play in Israel's In response to a recent article by Peter Beinart in the "Forward", Jonathan Dekel-Chen offers first-hand insights on about the realities along the Gaza border and the possible roles American-Jewish leadership could play in Israel's policies. Moisei Gutman, a cab [driver], was killed. He was a dear man who moved us from our dacha last fall. Gergel's overall figures, which are generally considered conservative, are based on the testimony of witnesses and newspaper reports collected by the Mizrakh-Yidish Historiche Arkhiv which was first based in Kiev, then Berlin and later New York.

In the early 20th century, pogroms broke out elsewhere in the world as well. In in Ireland , the Limerick boycott caused several Jewish families to leave the town. During the Tredegar riot in Wales , Jewish homes and businesses were looted and burned over the period of a week, before the British Army was called in by then- Home Secretary Winston Churchill , who described the riot as a "pogrom". The German reports were delivered to Zionist headquarters and the foreign press elsewhere by the official services of the Wilhelmstrasse.

In there were pogroms against Jews in Turkey and Algeria. The first pogrom in Nazi Germany was the Kristallnacht , often called Pogromnacht , in which at least 91 Jews were killed, a further 30, arrested and incarcerated in Nazi concentration camps , [10] over 1, synagogues burned, and over 7, Jewish businesses destroyed or damaged. Brand new battalions of Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz trained by SD agents were mobilized from among the German minorities. A large number of pogroms occurred during the Holocaust at the hands of non-Germans. On 1—2 June , in the two-day Farhud pogrom in Iraq , "rioters murdered between and Jews, injured others, and raped an undetermined number of women.

They also looted some 1, stores and homes". In Lithuania , some local police led by Algirdas Klimaitis and Lithuanian partisans — consisting of LAF units reinforced by 3, deserters from the 29th Lithuanian Territorial Corps of the Red Army [76] promulgated anti-Jewish pogroms in Kaunas along with occupying Nazis. On 25—26 June , about 3, Jews were killed and synagogues and Jewish settlements burned.

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The role of the German Einsatzgruppe B remains the subject of debate. After the end of World War II , a series of violent antisemitic incidents occurred against returning Jews throughout Europe , particularly in the Soviet-occupied East where Nazi propagandists had extensively promoted the notion of a Jewish-Communist conspiracy see Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, — and Anti-Jewish violence in Eastern Europe, — Anti-Jewish riots also took place in Britain in Following the start of the —48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine , a number of anti-Jewish events occurred throughout the Arab world, some of which have been described as pogroms.

In , half of Aleppo's 10, Jews left the city in the wake of the Aleppo riots , while other anti-Jewish riots took place in British Aden and the French Moroccan cities of Oujda and Jerada. Historian of Russian Jewry John Klier writes in Russians, Jews, and the Pogroms of — that "By the twentieth century, the word 'pogrom' had become a generic term in English for all forms of collective violence directed against Jews.

The term is also used in reference to attacks on non-Jewish ethnic minorities, and accordingly some scholars do not include antisemitism as the defining characteristic of pogroms. Reviewing its uses in scholarly literature, historian Werner Bergmann proposes that pogroms should be "defined as a unilateral, nongovernmental form of collective violence initiated by the majority population against a largely defenseless ethnic group, and he states that pogroms occur when the majority expects the state to provide them with no assistance in overcoming a perceived threat from the minority," [5] but he adds that in Western usage, the word's "anti-Semitic overtones" have been retained.

There is no universally accepted set of characteristics which define the term pogrom. Werner Bergmann suggests a particularly unifying characteristic of all such incidents: "[b]y the collective attribution of a threat, the pogrom differs from other forms of violence, such as lynchings , which are directed at individual members of a minority group, while the imbalance of power in favor of the rioters distinguishes pogroms from other forms of riot food riots , race riots or ' communal riots ' between evenly matched groups ; and again, the low level of organization separates them from vigilantism , terrorism , massacre and genocide ".

This is a partial list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "pogrom". Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.

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Pogroms in Russian History — University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Home FAQ Contact. Pogrom Wikipedia open wikipedia design. The deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or conducted by the local authorities. For the volcano in the Aleutian Islands, see Pogromni Volcano.


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