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Developments during the 19th century are briefly discussed.

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Pierre Poivre and the purloined spice trees; troubles of the early s, the gambits of Prince Nuku; the first English occupation, the levitation of spices; the second English occupation, the fate of reforms; nineteenth century personalities; glimpses of the northern Moluccas in the twentieth century.

Caratzas Publications, History of Dutch Protestant mission on the Moluccas , a period of renewed missionary activity, which was marked by the work of Joseph Kam. Baudet, Franeker, , Wever. Appendices: Composition of the European population group; Overview of the East Indies population; Enrollment European Primary School, ; Dutch as language of instruction for the Indigenous and Chinese population; Dutch as language of instruction, Europeans; Dutch as language of instruction; Indigenous population; Dutch as language of instruction; Chinese population; Numbers of boys and girls in Western Primary Education; Overview of education with Dutch as the language of instruction.

I, , Dordrecht, The Netherlands. How to cite Chicago : Kanumoyoso, Bondan. How to cite Vancouver : Kanumoyoso B. How to cite Harvard : Kanumoyoso, B. The extent of the Malay trade network was one of the factors that shape the maritime character of Southeast Asia. However, Malay trading activities was not only encouraged economic development in this region, but also form an identity that can be called as Malay maritime world of Southeast Asia. This article examines the maritime characteristic of Malay world and how global trade actually strengthens the role of Malay in trade and other maritime activities.

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DOI : Full Text: PDF. In Vol 2, No 1 Statistics : Prices for goods such as kerosene and rice, as well as fees for public services including education, rose dramatically.

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The effects were exacerbated by widespread corruption. The austerity measures approved by Suharto had started to erode domestic confidence with the New Order [] and led to popular protests. Suharto stood for re-election by parliament for the seventh time in March , justifying it on the grounds of the necessity of his leadership during the crisis.

The parliament approved a new term. This sparked protests and riots throughout the country, now termed the Indonesian Revolution.

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Dissent within the ranks of his own Golkar party and the military finally weakened Suharto, and on 21 May he stood down from power. President Habibie quickly assembled a cabinet. One of its main tasks was to re-establish International Monetary Fund and donor community support for an economic stabilisation program. He moved quickly to release political prisoners and lift some controls on freedom of speech and association.

Elections for the national, provincial, and sub-provincial parliaments were held on 7 June The May riots of Indonesia also known as the tragedy or simply the event, were incidents of mass violence, demonstrations, and civil unrest of a racial nature that occurred throughout Indonesia. Wahid named his first Cabinet in early November and a reshuffled, second Cabinet in August President Wahid's government continued to pursue democratisation and to encourage renewed economic growth under challenging conditions.

In addition to continuing economic malaise, his government faced regional, interethnic, and interreligious conflict, particularly in Aceh , the Maluku Islands , and Irian Jaya. In West Timor , the problems of displaced East Timorese and violence by pro-Indonesian East Timorese militias caused considerable humanitarian and social problems. An increasingly assertive Parliament frequently challenged President Wahid's policies and prerogatives, contributing to a lively and sometimes rancorous national political debate.

During the People's Consultative Assembly's first annual session in August , President Wahid gave an account of his government's performance. On 29 January thousands of student protesters stormed parliament grounds and demanded that President Abdurrahman Wahid resign due to alleged involvement in corruption scandals. Under pressure from the Assembly to improve management and co-ordination within the government, he issued a presidential decree giving Vice-President Megawati control over the day-to-day administration of government.

Soon after, Megawati Sukarnoputri assumed the presidency on 23 July.

In , Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono won Indonesia's first direct presidential election [] and in he was elected to a second term. Formerly Governor of Jakarta , he is the first Indonesian president without a high-ranking political or military background. As a multi-ethnic and multi-culture democratic country with a majority of moderate Muslim population, Indonesia faces the challenges to deal with terrorism that is linked to global militant Islamic movement.

The Jemaah Islamiyah JI , a militant Islamic organisation that aspired for the establishment of a Daulah Islamiyah [] that encompassed whole Southeast Asia including Indonesia, is responsible for a series of terrorist attacks in Indonesia.

Eastern Indonesia and the Writing of History

This terrorist organisation that is linked to Al-Qaeda , was responsible for the Bali bombings in and , as well as Jakarta bombings in , , and The Indonesian government, people and authorities has ever since tried to crack down the terrorist cells in Indonesia. On 14 January , Indonesia encountered a terrorist attack in Jakarta.

Suicide bombers and gunmen initiated the attack, which resulted in the death of seven people; an Indonesian, a Canadian and the rest were the attackers themselves. Twenty people were wounded from the attack.

Asian Trade and European Influence in the Indonesian Archipelago Between 1500 and about 1630

The assault was claimed as an act by the Islamic state. On 26 December , a massive earthquake and tsunami devastated parts of northern Sumatra , particularly Aceh. Partly as a result of the need for co-operation and peace during the recovery from the tsunami in Aceh, peace talks between the Indonesian government and the Free Aceh Movement GAM were restarted.

Accords signed in Helsinki created a framework for military de-escalation in which the government has reduced its military presence, as members of GAM's armed wing decommission their weapons and apply for amnesty. The agreement also allows for Acehnese nationalist forces to form their own party, and other autonomy measures.

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Since Indonesia has been struggling to contain forest fires, especially on the islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan. Haze occurs annually during the dry season and is largely caused by illegal agricultural fires due to slash-and-burn practices in Indonesia, especially in the provinces of South Sumatra and Riau on Indonesia's Sumatra island, and Kalimantan on Indonesian Borneo. Another 10 people were killed due to smog from forest and land fires.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Timeline of Indonesian history. Aspect of Southeast Asian history. Part of a series on the. Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms. Rise of Muslim states. Christian kingdom. Larantuka Kingdom — European colonisation. Emergence of Indonesia.

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National Awakening — Japanese occupation — War of Independence — By topic. Archaeology Currency Economy Military. Main article: Prehistoric Indonesia. Main article: Medang Kingdom.

Main article: Srivijaya. Main articles: Singhasari and Majapahit. Singhasari temple built as a mortuary temple to honour Kertanegara , the last king of Singhasari. Main article: The spread of Islam in Indonesia. Main article: Sultanate of Mataram. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: The Sultanate of Banten. Main article: Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia. See also: Dutch East Indies. Main article: Indonesian National Awakening.