But understanding and accepting the drivers can be a starting point for turning outmigration into an opportunity for renewal. Fertility rates in most European countries are below the level of natural replacement. Therefore mainly regions that are experiencing more immigration than emigration are also experiencing a growing population see map 1.
Northern Periphery Programme
Only a few regions within Europe are able to show a positive natural population development, while having no positive migration balance. In Austria, population growth is mainly attributed to international immigration, since the natural population development is stagnating.
Immigration is triggered by economic prosperity, possibilities on the labour market and educational opportunities. The patterns of population change between and show that population growth mainly took place in economic prosperous regions in the European core, or in regions with prosperous labour markets, while peripheral regions in the East, West and North, but also within inner-European peripheries Germany, Austria, France experienced population decline.
Generally it is urban agglomerations that experience immigration, while rural areas or former industrial areas within Europe suffer ongoing outmigration  — a trend that applies to internal and international migration. However, with the crisis and the increase of third country migration to Europe, the patterns have changed see Eurostat Peripheries in the South have started to lose population, while countries such as Sweden and Norway show population gains also in remote northern regions.
Still, migration has remained the main driver of population development. To a large extent, the regions in Europe showing a positive net migration balance are experiencing immigration from other parts of the European Union EU internal migration or internal migration from other parts of the same country, as it is the case in Austria see table 1. But population growth in European Union regions is also triggered by international migration.
Since the enlargement of the EU in and , and the economic crisis of , migration within the EU has intensified King and Williams The largest groups of EU internal moves are from the new member states, mainly Romania and Poland ibid. In total, a net number of 49, people has been observed arriving to Austria, with 29, of them coming from other EU countries. Most of them where directed towards urban agglomerations ibid. Table 1: Population in Austria by components, 1 Jan.
Migration is a selective phenomenon since not all subgroups of a population have the same prevalence of being mobile. Especially the age of a person affects the possibility to migrate. Since most significant life course transitions that trigger migration and occur when people are younger, a high number of migrants are young, aged between 18 to 34, experiencing the transition from school to higher education, the transition from education to employment and the transition from living at home with the family to living independently King et al.
Deriving from these transitions, three main types of young migrants can be distinguished: Labour-motivated youth migrants, educations-induced youth migrants and migration caused by family formation. Especially migration within the European Union can mostly be traced back to these migrant groups, as EU citizens benefit from the freedom of movement, labour and residence. Labour-motivated youth migration can serve as a strategy for handling increasing labour market insecurities and fewer employment opportunities, as well as to overcome payment differentials between different regions.
Access to the European market has influenced employment opportunities, especially for Eastern European countries.hapulsire.gq
Contradictions between countries in the periphery and centre of the European Union
Labour-motivated youth migration can be observed internationally as well as internally. Moreover, increasing tertiary education has led to an increase of youth mobility within the EU and globally. Education-induced youth migration can take place at different levels of education and between various regional and national boundaries.
Nevertheless, it is mostly connected to tertiary educational attainment in the form of both internal and international movements. Erasmus mobility schemes, the expansion of study programmes taught in English, as well as the development of the university sector as a global market have led to a higher prevalence of studying abroad King et al.
Studying in a foreign country can be the beginning of an international career and the starting point for a longer period of living abroad. Further, when young the life stage of family formation takes place, which is often connected to a change of residence.
Setting up an independent residence, followed by family forming events such as marriage, partnership union, cohabitation or giving birth often triggers internal migration. The increasing mobililty of young people is not only due to life course transitions, but is also linked to the fact that young people are growing up in an increasingly mobile world.
It is a world where migration and mobility become important individual strategies for managing opportunities and scarcities Veale and Donna In the transition to adulthood, living abroad is of major importance for globally oriented young people Beck and Beck-Gernsheim For young people the cost of migration is often low, while investing in education or a career abroad can lead to many kinds of benefits, including financial ones. Migration is not only selective at the individual level, but also at the spatial level.
Today, the landscape of migration patterns reveals a clear picture of which regions are un desired by young people. Each region offers different chances with regard to job possibilities, education and living conditions. This uneven distribution of life chances fosters migration decisions of people.
The European Periphery and the Eurozone Crisis
Regions that lack opportunities, as for example in their labour market, often experience outmigration Faggian et al While the increasing mobility of young people within the EU provides greater chances for the young people themselves, such mobility causes negative consequences at the regional level. Not only is emigration connected to the losses in productivity, human capital and innovation —— the so-called brain drain — it also means that potential parents are leaving and therefore a negative population development is effected in two ways. Often accompanying such negative overall population development in regions affected by outmigration are negative financial effects.
This is because population development often is the basis for assessing the financial distribution.
Core vs Periphery in the EU
The functional rationale has, for instance, led to the conception of the Pillar for eurozone members only with the option for other MS to join , which risks paving the way for social policy a field of differentiated integration. New initiatives such as the European labour authority ELA , which strives to improve the practice of labour mobility within the EU, are certainly important and relevant, but rethinking the social dimension of the European project will require us to discern the root causes for the failures of the free movement framework in the first place.
Some of the root causes can partly be located in the pre-existing economic and social inequalities between the core and periphery. The same exercise of tracing the root causes would apply to the social consequences of the eurozone crisis governance in the MS of the southern periphery.
- Croatia’s Political and Economic Situation – The Periphery of Europe Today.
- Croatia’s Political and Economic Situation – The Periphery of Europe Today;
- Competitive European Peripheries | Heikki Eskelinen | Springer.
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Therefore, any further thinking — and especially action — on the substance of the ESU or the Pillar will presuppose tackling the problem of within and especially between European polities. In this sense, as Chiara Saraceno has argued in this forum , it is essential to focus on both pre-distributive and redistributive policies to bridge the inequality gap within and between MS.
We, therefore, need to think outside the rights framework that the Pillar itself is constructed upon and reflect on the legal structures that might perpetuate particular hierarchies and injustices within the EU Kukovec Having recognised that tackling inequality is essential for overcoming the core-periphery chasm, to what extent can the Pillar guide the establishment and further operation of an ESU? Pre-distributive policies need to be combined with distributive and redistributive policies that would naturally require thinking about transfers and supporting national and transnational initiatives through structural and cohesion funds.
This, at least symbolically, can be considered an improvement compared to other EU or international instruments, such as the EU Charter or the International Covenant for Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, which strives for a minimum floor of protection in domains like housing, health, and food, rather than a fuller bodied egalitarianism Moyn ; Florian Hoffmann forthcoming Its rights and principles, together with the accompanying scoreboard, could be regarded as motivational and inspirational directions, but it would be less productive to focus on discussing their enforceability and justiciability in each case.
Tackling the existing inequality between the European core and the periphery both southern and eastern is essential for the success of any social reinvention of the European integration project, which in this case will require looking for progressive pre- and re-distributive policy solutions beyond the rights framework offered by the Social Pillar. One starting point will be to rethink pre-distributive policies Saraceno that would aim at correcting the existing legal arrangements that keep reproducing hierarchies and structural inequalities in the single market and within the EU in general see Kukovec These pre-distributive policies need to be combined with distributive and redistributive policies that would naturally require thinking about transfers and supporting national and transnational initiatives through structural and cohesion funds, as well as other sector-specific funds such as the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund EGAF or the Fund for Aid to Deprived People Ferrera All of this would, however, require open support for more pan-European solidarity, which does not have to be a priori perceived as a dangerous idea in the current political context Ferrera ; Vandenbroucke Claeys, G.
Hoffmann, F. FAQ Policy. About this book Europe's space is in a flux. Show all. Table of contents 12 chapters Table of contents 12 chapters Competitive European Peripheries? An Introduction Pages Eskelinen, Heikki et al. Are Leaping Frogs Freezing? Show next xx. Read this book on SpringerLink. Recommended for you.