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Encyclopedia of Food Safety

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Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Assembled with the objective of facilitating the work of those working in the field of food safety and related fields, such as nutrition, food science and technology and environment - this work covers the entire spectrum of food safety topics into one comprehensive reference work The Editors have made every effort to ensure that this work meets strict quality and pedagogical thresholds such as: contributions by the foremost authorities in their fields; unbiased and concise overviews on a multitude of food safety subjects; references for further information, and specialized and general definitions for food safety terminology In maintaining confidence in the safety of the food supply, sound scientific information is key to effectively and efficiently assessing, managing and communicating on food safety risks.

Yet, professionals and other specialists working in this multidisciplinary field are finding it increasingly difficult to keep up with developments outside their immediate areas of expertise. This single source of concise, reliable and authoritative information on food safety has, more than ever, become a necessity. Conclusion: What does the Public Need to Know?

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Many grains, fruits, and vegetables can support fungal growth under certain conditions. Agricultural attention to mycotoxins has focused on corn, nut, and fruit crops because of their susceptibility to mold growth and their importance in human diet.

Climate conditions, including temperature and moisture can affect mold growth in harvested fields, with moister, warmer periods favoring growth. Mycotoxins serve as a defensive force for molds, because they can actually limit the role of competitive microorganisms in the vicinity. Although farm and food industries make every effort to eliminate mycotoxins because they can cause illness and devalue crops, mycotoxins cannot be completely removed, and small quantities of them continue to be present in many foods.

Many mycotoxins affect several target organs including the liver, which develops a toxicity. Mycotoxins harm their host by disrupting cellular activity.

Encyclopedia of Food Mycotoxins

The phomopsons, a kind of mycotoxin, inhibit the normal activity of microtubules, essential structures inside cells that are required for cellular division. The Aspergillus family of fungi produce a very potent mycotoxin called aflatoxin.


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The aflatoxins bind to DNA in the cellular nucleus of the organism they attack, acting as a powerful and potentially fatal, mutagen. Other Aspergillus toxins which have been found in food include ochratoxin A and sterigmatocystin. Ochratoxin A is a mammalian carcinogen that causes renal disease in humans. Like many other naturally occurring mycotoxins, the toxin is found in a number of everyday foods.

Agricultural biology: Kononenko

Varying levels of OA have been detected in beans, cereals, cocoa, coffee, corn, figs, flours, pork kidney, nuts, olives, peas, rice, sausage, and soy. Mycotoxins can be produced by the fungi that grow on the crop itself, the weeds surrounding the crop, or the soil in which the crop grows. Alternia fungi are natural soil inhabitants that produce several mycotoxins — alternariol and alternariol methyl ether found on apples , and tenuazonic acid found on tomatoes and in tomato paste. Alternia toxins are responsible for postharvest decay in these crops.

Mycotoxin levels in foods are monitored and minimized by the food industry. Although most mushrooms are harmless, poisonous mushrooms contain mycotoxins capable of attacking the human host with fatal consequences. The reaction times and symptoms vary according to mushroom. Some mycotoxins act immediatelly on the human host, with effects ranging from nausea, vomiting, hallucination, anxiety, muscle spasms, diarrhea, and hyperactivity or lethargy. Other mycotoxins have more serious effects, are delayed in onset, and can be fatal.

The delayed symptoms which may persist up to 14 days after ingestion include bloating, headache, severe vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, severe thirst, frequent urination, kidney pain, and death. Potentially fatal mycotoxins that are classified as group A, B, and C poisons include monome-thylhydrazine, the amatoxins, and orellanine. The mode of action of mushroom-produced mycotoxins varies considerably.