Latin scholars also had an influence on metonymy. The treatise Rhetorica ad Herennium states metonymy as, "the figure which draws from an object closely akin or associated an expression suggesting the object meant, but not called by its own name. We understand and then call the word by a name that it is associated with. Metonymy became important in French structuralism through the work of Roman Jakobson. In his essay "The Metaphoric and Metonymic Poles", Jakobson relates metonymy to the linguistic practice of [syntagmatic] combination and to the literary practice of realism.
He explains:. The primacy of the metaphoric process in the literary schools of Romanticism and symbolism has been repeatedly acknowledged, but it is still insufficiently realized that it is the predominance of metonymy which underlies and actually predetermines the so-called 'realistic' trend, which belongs to an intermediary stage between the decline of Romanticism and the rise of symbolism and is opposed to both. Following the path of contiguous relationships, the realistic author metonymically digresses from the plot to the atmosphere and from the characters to the setting in space and time.
He is fond of synecdochic details. In the scene of Anna Karenina 's suicide Tolstoy's artistic attention is focused on the heroine's handbag; and in War and Peace the synecdoches "hair on the upper lip" or "bare shoulders" are used by the same writer to stand for the female characters to whom these features belong.
Dreams can use metonyms.
Metonyms can also be wordless. For example, Roman Jakobson  argued that cubist art relied heavily on nonlinguistic metonyms, while surrealist art relied more on metaphors. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with meronymy or meronomy. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Metaphor and metonymy. Main article: List of metonyms. This section relies largely or entirely on a single source.
Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. December Cambridge University Press. Retrieved New York City: Silver Burdett. Metaphor and Metonymy in Comparison and Contrast. Walter de Gruyter. Sex, Ecology, Spirituality. Shambhala Publications. Retrieved 19 December New York: Prentice Hall Inc.
A Map of Misreading.
Oxford University Press. Silva Rhetoricae. Archived from the original on Semiotics for Beginners. Aberystwyth University.
Dirven and R. Retrieved 30 November New York: Routledge. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. Textual Metonymy: A Semiotic Approach. Metaphor and Metonymy in Comparison and Contrast revised ed. Retrieved 14 May The Hague: Mouton. Personal names and anthroponymy. Personal identity. First name Middle name Last name.
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Going Live. When X what happens to Y? Metaphors of Organisation part 1. Tangled Spaghetti in My Head: Making use of metaphor. Utilising Autogenic Metaphor. Added to 'Read later'. You recently viewed. View Authors. These notes were first presented at The Developing Group , 3 August The part cannot totally contain the whole. But it always partially contains the whole.
The part contains the whole to some degree. The ham sandwich is waiting for his check. Grundy frowns on blue jeans. The automobile is clogging our highways. We've got some new blood in the organisation. Without the metonymy of the book for the writing of the book, one would say "the writing is moving right along. For example, a question mark indicates something unknown, as in "He's a big question mark to me.
He's got a Picasso.